In this example multi-particle flux calculation from an undulator for a non-zero emittance electron beam.
# This has nothing to do with OSCARS, but it puts the matplotlib plots inline in the notebook %matplotlib inline # Import the OSCARS SR module import oscars.sr # Import basic plot utilities (matplotlib). You don't need these to run OSCARS, but it's used here for basic plots from oscars.plots_mpl import *
OSCARS v2.1.8 - Open Source Code for Advanced Radiation Simulation Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY, USA http://oscars.bnl.gov firstname.lastname@example.org
# Create a new OSCARS object. Default to 8 threads and always use the GPU if available osr = oscars.sr.sr(nthreads=8, gpu=1)
Here we create the undulator field. Here bfield represents maximum magnetic field [$B_x, B_y, B_z$]. The period is also in vector form which allows you to orient the axis of the undulator in any arbitrary direction. The number of periods is given by nperiods. This is the number of FULL periods. A terminating field of 1 period length is added to each side in addition to nperiods. Typically clear_magnetic_fields() is called before adding a field in notebooks only to save time when making changes and rerunning sections of the code so it is not strictly necessary.
# Clear any existing fields (just good habit in notebook style) and add an undulator field osr.clear_bfields() osr.add_bfield_undulator(bfield=[0, 1, 0], period=[0, 0, 0.049], nperiods=31) # Just to check the field that we added seems visually correct plot_bfield(osr)
Here we add a particle beam making use of some of the defaults, namely:
* type='electron' * t0=0 * d0=[0, 0, 1]
One must specify ctstartstop. This is the start and stop time of the calculation. In this example we will start the calculation at t=0 and go to t=2 (given in units of ct) since the beam is relativistic. In this example you can specify the start time as less than 0 which is useful if you want to propogate the particle backwars in time. This is useful for instance if you have a bending magnet before the undulator that you wish to include.
# Setup beam similar to NSLSII osr.set_particle_beam( energy_GeV=3, x0=[0, 0, -1], current=0.500, sigma_energy_GeV=0.001*3, beta=[1.5, 0.8], emittance=[0.9e-9, 0.008e-9] ) # Set the start and stop times for the calculation osr.set_ctstartstop(0, 2)
Now we calculate the trajectory and plot it. It is enough to call calculate_trajectory(). If you are doing other calculations (flux, spectra, power density) it is not necesary to call this since it is called internally.
# Run the particle trajectory calculation on the ideal case osr.set_new_particle(particle='ideal') trajectory = osr.calculate_trajectory() # Plot the trajectory position and velocity plot_trajectory_position(trajectory)
Calculate the spectrum in a given range with the given number of points equally spaced (not a requirement).
First we calculate the single eletron spectrum for the idea particle, then we calculate the multi-particle spectrum. One can use nthreads or gpu in any of these calculations. For multi-particle calculations simply add nparticles=100 and so on depending on the number of particles you wish to simulate.
# Single particle spectrum for the ideal case osr.set_new_particle(particle='ideal') spectrum_se = osr.calculate_spectrum(obs=[0, 0, 30], energy_range_eV=[130, 160], npoints=500) spectrum_me = osr.calculate_spectrum(obs=[0, 0, 30], energy_range_eV=[130, 160], npoints=500, nparticles=100) plot_spectra([spectrum_se, spectrum_me], ['single-electron', 'multi-electron'])
Calcuate the flux on a rectangular surface downstream 30 [m] from the center of the device.
# Calcuate flux at 30 [m] for 152 eV flux_multi = osr.calculate_flux_rectangle( plane='XY', energy_eV=152, width=[0.01, 0.01], npoints=[101, 101], translation=[0, 0, 30], nparticles=5 ) plot_flux(flux_multi, ofile='UndulatorFlux_MultiParticle.png')